When did the fda approve ritalin?
What is methylphenidate, and how does it work mechanism of action? Methylphenidate is a medication that stimulates the central nervous system CNS or brain in a manner that is similar to the amphetamines ; however, its actions are milder than those of the amphetamines.
An additional difference is that methylphenidate produces more noticeable effects on mental activities than on motor activities. Methylphenidate and amphetamines both have abuse potential. In treating children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHDmethylphenidate produces a calming effect.
This in a reduction in hyperactivity and an improvement in attention span. Methylphenidate also is used to treat excessive sleepiness. Methylphenidate was approved by the FDA in What brand names are available for methylphenidate? Is this drug available as a generic in generic form?
Do I need a prescription for methylphenidate? What are the side effects of methylphenidate? Insomnia can be limited by taking the drug before noon. For children taking methylphenidate for ADHDthe most common side effects are loss of appetiteabdominal painweight lossand sleep problems. The rate and severity of these side effects are less than that seen with dextroamphetamine Dexedrine. There have been rare reports of Tourette's syndrome, a syndrome in which there are uncontrollable tics such as grimacing occurring with methylphenidate use.
Because of the potential for side effects, methylphenidate should be used with caution by patients who have relatives with Tourette's syndrome or have the syndrome themselves or who have severe anxietyseizurespsychosis, emotional instability, major depressionglaucomaor motor tics. Sudden discontinuation of long-term methylphenidate therapy may unmask depression.
Gradual withdrawal, under supervision, is recommended. Methylphenidate is habit forming and should be used cautiously in individuals with a history of drug or alcohol abuse.
What is methylphenidate?
Chronic abuse can lead to tolerance and psychological dependence leading to abnormal behavior. Priapism defined as painful and nonpainful penile erection lasting more than 4 hours, have been reported in pediatric and adult patients treated with stimulants.
The erection usually resolves when the drug is stopped. Prompt medical attention is required in the event of suspected priapism. What is the dosage for methylphenidate?
The dose of methylphenidate is adjusted based on patients' responses. It may be given once, twice, or three times daily depending on formulation. The recommended dose for Ritalin LA is mg once daily and for regular Ritalin the recommended dose is mg daily in 2 or 3 divided doses. Which drugs or supplements interact with methylphenidate? The stimulation effects of methylphenidate on the CNS can be additive when used with other chemicals and medications that stimulate the CNS, such as caffeine found in coffee, tea, or cola drinksand pseudoephedrine or phenylpropanolamine found in many cough -and- cold preparations.
The combination of methylphenidate and monoamine oxidase inhibitors MAOIsfor example, isocarboxazid Marplanphenelzine Nardiltranylcypromine Parnateand procarbazine Matulaneshould not be taken with methylphenidate since a hypertensive crisis severely high blood pressure may occur. Moreover, methylphenidate should not be given to any patient within 14 days of receiving such an inhibitor. The blood pressure lowering effects of medications used to treat hypertension may be reduced by methylphenidate. As a result, blood pressure needs to be monitored when starting or stopping methylphenidate in patients who are receiving medications for controlling their blood pressure.
Is methylphenidate safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? What else should I know about this drug? Side effects, drug interactions, warnings and precautions, patient safety information, and pregnancy efficacy should be reviewed prior to taking any medication.
What is drug abuse? Learn about prescription drug abuse and over-the-counter OTC drugs, including depressants, pain relievers, Find out causes, symptoms, and treatments for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, a widespread behavioral condition Drug addiction is a chronic disease that causes drug-seeking behavior and drug use despite negative consequences to the user and those around him. Though the initial decision to use drugs is voluntary, changes in the brain caused by repeated drug abuse can affect a person's self-control and ability to make the right decisions and increase the urge to take drugs.
Drug abuse and addiction are preventable.
Paraphilias are characterized by sexual fantasies, urges, and behaviors involving unusual objects or activities. Exhibitionism, fetishism, frotteurism, pedophilia, sadism, transvestitism, voyeurism, and sexual masochism are examples of paraphilias.
Counseling, therapy, and medications are used in the treatment of paraphilias. Depression is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and affects the way a person eats and sleeps, the way one feels about oneself, and the way one thinks about things.
The principal types of depression are major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disease also called manic-depressive disease. Misophonia is defined as the hatred of sound. Symptoms of this condition include a negative emotional response to certain trigger sounds, such as slurping, snoring, yawning, or throat clearing.
Other symptoms include distancing oneself from the trigger, and acting out at the sound's source.
Methylphenidate (ritalin, concerta, methylin, daytrana)
Treatment may involve medications, cognitive behavioral therapy, or tinnitus retraining therapy. A of vital tasks carried out during sleep help maintain good health and enable people to function at their best. Sleep needs vary from individual to individual and change throughout your life. The National Institutes of Health recommend about hours of sleep each night for older, school-aged children, teens, and most average adults; for preschool-aged children; and hours for newborns.
The side effects of lack of sleep or insomnia include: Irritability Tiredness Feeling sleepy during the day Concentration or memory problems Lack of sleep and insomnia can be caused by medical conditions or diseases, medications, stress, or pain. The treatment for lack of sleep and insomnia depends upon the cause. Parenting a teenager who has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD can be challenging.
Parents can use specific strategies to help their teen cope with school and homework. Special care should be taken to help an ADHD teen drive safely and avoid alcohol and drug use. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD causes the following symptoms in children: excessive activity, problems concentrating, and difficulty controlling impulses.
Stimulant medications are the most common medication used to treat ADHD. Traumatic brain injury and related conditions, may require diuretics, anticonvulsants, sedatives, antidepressants, muscle relaxers, pain relievers, and stimulants to treat deficits in cognitive functions such as attention, memory, learning and language.
Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation.
It's caused by a mutation on the X chromosome. People with Fragile X syndrome suffer from physical, social, emotional, speech, language, sensory, intelligence, and learning impairments. There is no definitive treatment for Fragile X, though there are ways to minimize the symptoms.
Autism in children and adults is a developmental disorder, characterized by impaired development in communication, social interaction, and behavior.
What is ritalin?
Autism is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder PDDwhich is part of a broad spectrum of developmental disorders affecting young children and adults. There are numerous theories and studies about the cause of autism. The treatment model for autism is an educational program that is suitable to an individual's developmental level of performance. There is no "cure" for autism. Causes of narcolepsy, a chronic disease of the central nervous system, have not been fully determined.
Methylphenidate, oral tablet
Some theories include abnormalities in hypocretin neurons in the brain or an autoimmune disorder. Symptoms of narcolepsy include: excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nocturnal sleep, and automatic behavior. Diagnosis of narcolepsy is based on a clinical evaluation, specific questionnaires, sleep logs or diaries, and the of sleep laboratory tests. Treatments of narcolepsy symptoms include medication and lifestyle changes. Symptoms include impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention. Treatment may involve ADHD education, attending a support group, skills training, and medication.
Tourette syndrome is disorder, which symptoms include involuntary facial tics, motor tics, and vocal tics. The cause of Tourette syndrome is not known. ADHD is associated with Tourette syndrome.
Treatment includes medication, psychotherapy, and in severe cases surgery. Learning disabilities can cause an individual to have trouble learning and using skills such as reading, listening, writing, reading, speaking, reasoning, and performing mathematics. There is no cure for learning disabilities. Parents and teachers working together to properly diagnose learning disabilities can properly plan a course of education. For some, medication may be appropriate as complimentary treatment.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD in teens is a disruption of neurocognitive functioning.