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In a 6-week trial that included 59 patients with moderate-to- severe depressionthere was no ificant difference between the impact of high-dose psilocybin and that of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI escitalopramsold under the brand name Lexapro. Patients in the group that received psilocybin did show a much more rapid improvement in the main measure of depression than those taking escitalopram, but this gap narrowed over the span of the trial until it was no longer statistically ificant. And psilocybin was consistently superior on the ancillary outcomes, but it wasn't different on the primary," the study's lead author Robin Carhart-Harris, PhD, head of the Centre for Psychedelic Research at Imperial College London, told reporters during a news briefing.


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We've updated our Privacy Policy to make it clearer how we use your personal data. We use cookies to provide you with a better experience. You can read our Cookie Policy here. One drawback of psilocybin-assisted therapeutic interventions is the requirement for the experience to be closely monitored and supported, due to the often-intense psychedelic and hallucinogenic experiences that can result from consumption. However, new efforts are trying to tease out what would be a minimal effective dose of psilocybin, one that would have beneficial effects on the brain whilst minimizing hallucinatory experiences. Ruairi Mackenzie RM : What evidence base currently exists around the dosing of psilocybin?

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For inquiries regarding the utilization of ethnobotanicals, or in case you are experiencing an adverse situation or difficulty integrating and experience, please read this. For inquiries regarding legal supportplease read this. The different varieties of psychoactive mushrooms, also known as magic mushrooms, which contain psychoactive alkaloids such as psilocin, psilocybin and baeocystin, belong to the families Strophariaceae and Hymenogastraceae of basidiomycete mushrooms, of the Agaricales order. The most common and well-known genera that produce species that contain these alkaloids are Psilocybe and Panaeolus.

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Psilocybin mushrooms have been used by different cultures for their intoxicating effects, particularly in the Mesoamerican Aztec peoples of the pre-Columbian era and later among the Mazatecs and Zapotecs. There are more than species of mushrooms that contain tryptamine alkaloids such as psilocybin and psilocin.

They include the genera Psilocybe speciesGymnopilus 13 speciesPanaeolus 7 speciesCopelandia 12 speciesHypholoma 6 speciesPluteus 6 speciesInocybe 6 speciesCnocybe 4 species and Agrocybe, Galerina and Mycena. The genus Psilocybe is the most common, and most of its species are found in humid subtropical forests.

Magic mushrooms

Mexico is the country where the greatest variety of psychoactive mushrooms can be found. Although psychoactive mushrooms are found from Alaska to southern Chile, Australia and New Zealand, Hawaii, Europe, Siberia, Japan and Southeast Asia, precise knowledge of their geographical distribution is not well established. Different varieties of magic mushrooms have been used by people around the world since ancient times. Indigenous groups have revered the visions induced by mushrooms, and have used them in their magico-religious rituals to communicate with the spiritual world, the spirits of the deceased and to obtain knowledge and healing.

The oldest samples of the probable use of mushrooms, although not totally conclusive, can be found in a mural in Tassili, in the Sahara desert, southeast of Algeria. In this mural, which dates from between and BCE, mushrooms as well as anthropomorphic figures carrying mushrooms are represented.

As for what type of mushroom is depicted, some authors have speculated that it is Psilocybe maireia known species of Algeria and Morocco. Others, however, doubt the authenticity of these paintings. In these murals figures of bulls are represented, so some authors correlate the relationship of fungal growth with the habitat, since these species grow in bovine feces. We also find the use of psychoactive mushrooms in Asia. Parietal pictorial representations have also been found in caves and shelters in South Africa and Australia, among other places.

In the New World different groups have used and continue to use psilocybin mushrooms.

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In particular, different Mexican ethnic groups, such as the Mazatecs, Mixitecas and Zapotecs, among others. Vessels in the shape of mushrooms have been found associated with the pre-classical and classical Mayan periods in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador, dating from between BCE and CE and suggesting ancestral knowledge of the use of psilocybin mushrooms. The first documented reports about the use of mushrooms are from an indigenous person named Tezozomoc, who wrote in Spanish in about the use of intoxicating mushrooms in the celebration of the coronation of Moctezuma II induring the Aztec civilization.

There are representations of mushrooms in Mexican art that survived the conquest. Good examples of this are the Codex Vindobonensis, the Codex Magliabechiano, and the famous frescoes of Tepantitla, in the city of Teotihuacan. The Spaniards believed that the use of the mushroom was contrary to Christian morality, and in the tribunal of the Inquisition declared its use heretical, as well as that of any other intoxicating plant, and harshly repressed healers and those who ingested the mushroom.

Henceforth, the traditional use of psilocybin mushrooms was relegated to clandestine secrecy. That same year, Irmgard Weitlaner and Jean Basett Johnson attended a mushroom ceremony, although they did not ingest any and therefore did not experience its effects. During the summer ofGordon Wasson and his photographer Allan Richardson attended a psilocybin mushroom vigil with Maria Sabina — a Mazatec shaman — and were the first Westerners to experience and report the effects of mushrooms and their traditional uses among Mazatecs.

Psilocybin is the main component of most varieties and the most stable alkaloid of the three. Hofmann is known to have synthesized LSD lysergic acid diethylamideand was also the first to synthesize psilocybin in Studies on the pharmacology of psilocybin indicate that psilocybin is converted to psilocin once absorbed, and that equivalent amounts of psilocin produce the same subjective effects as psilocybin. Therefore psilocybin is sometimes considered a stable precursor, or prodrug, but the psychoactive alkaloid responsible for the effects of mushrooms is psilocin.

There are no specific studies and there is very little information on the effects and pharmacology of baeocystin. The potency of psilocybin mushrooms varies greatly depending on the species and variety, as well as the conditions in which they have grown and the age of the mushrooms. Common varieties such as Psilocybe cubensis and Psilocybe semilanceata contain around 6 mg of psilocybin per gram of dried mushrooms.

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Other varieties, such as Psilocybe azurenscens and Psilocybe bohemica contain a higher amount of psilocybin, around 1. There are varieties of intermediate potencies, such as the Panaeolus cyanescensalso known as Copelandia cyanescenswhich contain 0. Dosages of mushrooms vary depending on the species, its state of preservation, if they are fresh or dried mushrooms and other factors, so adjusting the doses of mushrooms is always imprecise.

Usually the doses for usual varieties P. Psilocybin mushrooms produce psychoactive effects in humans very similar to the rest of the classical psychedelics such as LSD and mescaline. Most users describe the experience as an internal journey, in which they go through different phases with varying effects.

The first effects usually begin to be perceived earlier than with LSD or mescaline, and by about 30 minutes after ingestion they can be discerned. The maximum effects are usually established between 60 and 90 minutes after ingestion, and they last for about two hours before starting to diminish.

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The total duration of the experience is around 4 to 6 hours, depending on the dose. Physical effects Physically, the main effects of psilocybin include dilation of the pupils and slight increases in blood pressure and heart rate, especially at high doses.

Variation in blood pressure seems more related to subjective experience than to the physiological effects of psilocybin, particularly if anxiety appears. Nausea can sometimes occur, especially when mushrooms are ingested rather than pure psilocybin, and more rarely vomiting or diarrhea. Tremors, muscle discomfort and dizziness may also occur. Psychological effects Psychological effects are characterized by marked alterations of sensory perceptions as well as profound changes in consciousness and cognition. At the sensory level, visual alterations may occur in the form of colorful kaleidoscopic visions with closed eyes, intensification of colors, distortion of the shapes of objects or surfaces that undulate or move.

Auditory disturbances may also appear, such as an increased appreciation of music and sounds. Synesthetic experiences can occur, in which stimuli corresponding to a certain sensory field are perceived and processed by another sense; for example, sounds that are perceived as visions.

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The sense of touch can also be altered, experiencing an increase in tactile sensitivity, sensations of cold or heat, tingling or a feeling of energy running through the body, as well as paresthesia. At the cognitive and consciousness level, these alterations can be very intense and seem to be experiences as positive as they are terrifying. Recent studies have observed the ability of psilocybin to induce mystical experiences in controlled contexts and in high doses. These mystical experiences include feelings of numinousness, profoundly positive emotional states, internal unity, transcendence of time and space, ineffability and a sense of unity and interconnection with all things.

Frightening experiences may include sensations of agonizing fear, paranoia, a sense of dying or going crazy, feelings of depression or anger, high anxiety, agitation, confusion, and disorientation both spatiotemporally and internally. In most cases, however, the experiences induced by mushrooms contain both positive and pleasant elements, as well as less pleasant components that could be experienced as psychologically challenging.

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Experiences in which personal biographical material emerges are common, as well as content related to ificant others. Some studies show that psilocybin produces an increase in positive mood, and a positive bias in the perception of stimuli, related to a possible decrease in the activity of the amygdala, the brain structure responsible for the processing of potentially threatening emotions. In addition to the ability of psilocybin to induce mystical experiences, other potentially therapeutic effects have been found in clinical trials.

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The use of psilocybin in the treatment of anxiety and the increase in quality of life in cases of people with advanced cancer diagnoses has been investigated. Psilocybin has also been used in research for the treatment of cluster headaches as well as obsessive-compulsive disorder. Studies on the use of psilocybin in tobacco and alcohol addiction have also been undertaken.

Research is currently being conducted on the therapeutic potential of psilocybin for treatment-resistant depressive disorders with promising. The active ingredients of psilocybin mushrooms, psilocybin and psilocin, are controlled substances on Schedule I of the United Nations convention. Therefore, the sale of these substances is illegal. In Schedule I of the Convention, only active ingredients appear, not the natural materials that contain them such as mushrooms or plantswhich leaves the interpretation of the prohibition of botanical materials open to the particular laws of each country.

Furthermore, in many countries these mushrooms grow wild. In most European countries, psilocybin mushrooms are illegal and can not be bought or sold.

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For several years mushrooms were available for purchase and sale in smart-shops in the Netherlands. They could legally acquire fresh as well as dried mushrooms since they were legal until After that year, dried mushrooms were declared illegal, although they could continue selling fresh mushrooms. That situation changed and the sale of fresh mushrooms has been illegal since Mushroom spores, as well as culture kits that do not contain mushrooms, and therefore their active ingredients, are sold in smart-shops in some countries.

Physical health Due to the possibility of intense experiences that generate anxiety, people with a history of cardiovascular diseases, particularly those who are taking medication to control these diseases or who have to reduce their physical activity by medical indication, should refrain from using mushrooms.

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Regarding the quality of the mushrooms, when collecting them in their natural environment it is essential to know how to identify mushrooms correctly and not to confuse them with any variety that may be toxic or poisonous.

In general, only certain varieties of the genera Galerina and Pholiota have toxic or deadly effects and can be confused with psilocybin mushrooms.

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Psychological health Although mushrooms present few risks to physical health since psilocybin is pharmacologically a very safe substance, besides having no addictive potential, there are risks to psychological health that must be taken into. Some of these risks may occur during the experience, and others later, in the medium term. The main risk of psilocybin mushrooms is that they can trigger a difficult experience, in which there are unpleasant symptoms such as fear, anxiety, paranoid ideas, fear of death or going crazy, symptoms of a psychotic nature, or the feeling that the trip will never end.

This type of experience can occur with any dose, although its manifestations in such cases are different. At low and medium doses unpleasant psychological material can appear and the person may try to resist them; this resistance usually generates greater anxiety. In such cases, a change in setting can help reduce anxiety. A quiet environment and a willingness to surrender to the experience without judgment can often help to continue the journey and resolve these difficult moments.

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At high doses, resistances are lower due to the intensity of the experience, and people are usually totally immersed in the trip. In these situations, physical and emotional restraint is needed, as is support during the experience by a caregiver, preferably sober.

Symptoms of acute stress may appear after a traumatic experience with mushrooms that persist over time and require specialized psychological attention.

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Although the appearance of severe and persistent psychiatric disorders after the use of psilocybin mushrooms may occur, it is very rare. In cases of experiencing psychological difficulties after a psychedelic experience, psychotherapeutic integration sessions can help to alleviate the symptoms and process the psychological material of the session in an appropriate way. Most difficult situations can be prevented by seriously considering the context in which the experience will be undertaken, the dose, the company and the vital moment in which one decides to use mushrooms.

A quiet, safe environment, free of interruptions and unexpected interferences, aesthetically pleasing, with music ly selected and especially with the company of trusted people is suitable for the type of experience that mushrooms induce.

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Less controlled and safe environments involve a greater possibility of unexpected events that can create anxiety. It is therefore essential to take into what context the mushrooms are going to be used in and decide on the elements that will be a part of it.