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Heroin does not have any medical uses and you can only purchase the drug on the black market.

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Harm Reduction Journal volume 18Article : 8 Cite this article. Metrics details. Comparison of diacetylmorphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, paracetamol and caffeine concentrations were performed in the non-processed material, after processing according to the standard and to the alternative preparation methods using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry followed by statistical evaluation of the. In Western Europe, brown heroin diacetylmorphine is usually sold as the free base on the black market. Footnote 1 The addition of acid, most frequently ascorbic acid or citric acid, is thus mandatory to obtain a water-soluble product usable for intravenous IV injection.

Footnote 2 Heroin and its degradation products 6-monoacetylmorphine MAM and morphine are responsible for the effect on the drug consumer Fig. This process is a metabolic pathway but can also occur during the preparation of the drug by heating. While toxicological data and drug composition are closely monitored in most states in Europe and Northern America, the impact of heroin preparation methods is rarely investigated in the scientific literature and most information available is through consumer interviews.

Footnote 3Footnote 4 Thermal degradation, the breaking of chemical bounds by heat, has been reviewed in by Cook and Brine Footnote 5 and by Bell and Nida in Footnote 6. The heroin powder with an acid is heated with a lighter until the first bubbles appear and turns dark brownish. Then, the saline solution is added and the mixture is briefly heated again for optimal dissolution Fig.

Eventually, the solution is soaked up into the syringe through a cotton filter. Interviews with health care personal with question regarding consumption habits and history, expectations of the products, price, smell and taste took place. Footnote 7 However, no increase in fatal or near fatal intoxication was reported. No information is available if the Turkish heroin use le to a more frequent heroin consumption or needs a higher or lower dosage of the drug. Due to the anesthetic effect of street diacetylmorphine, the consumer often does not notice whether and how much of the substance enters the tissue next to the vein leading to abscess formation.

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It is also noted that the epidermis covering the abscess necrotizes and dies off much faster. Subsequent wound treatment is difficult generally when these abscesses spontaneously open or must be treated surgically. The soot particles are firmly attached to the wound bed and their removal by enzymatic or mechanical wound cleansing remains difficult and tedious Fig. Footnote 11 To our knowledge, no chemical investigation on this preparation method was performed.

Brown heroin is the only form of heroin available at the Luxembourgish illegal drug market. A total of 30 independent samples received in from seizures of the Luxembourgish police or customs office have been randomly selected for analysis.

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UPLC grade water with 0. Aluminum cookers Apothicom Stericup, Chirana T. Injectaascorbic acid Vitamin C, mg, Chirana T. Injecta and physiological saline solution 0. The standard preparation method consisted in mixing mg of heroin powder with 50 mg of ascorbic acid in the aluminum cup, prior the addition of 1 mL of saline solution.

A gas lighter was used to heat uniformly the aluminum cup until complete dissolution of the solid material. This step took 15—60 s.

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After heating until liquefaction of the starting material 15—30 s1 mL of saline solution was added. A second heating step 30—60 s was applied to obtain the final homogenous solution. The analyses were performed using a LC-based high-resolution mass spectrometer in order to prevent the presence of artefacts that may result from the high temperature required in GC-based analyses i.

Footnote The system was operated using an Agilent MassHunter Workstation. The elution was carried out by applying a mixture of solvents A and B. The ESI interface was operated in positive ionization mode. Footnote 13 Precursor selection was performed using an absolute threshold of counts, a relative threshold of 0.

Reference masses were The same analytical system as for the qualitative screening was used for quantitative analyses. The flow rate was 0. Reference masses were the same as for the qualitative analysis. The area under the curve AUC was used to quantify each compound of interest. The quantification was performed using a four-point external calibration curve 0, 0. The relative standard deviation RSD was calculated, for each compound of interest, using the following formula:.

To evaluate the concentration changes of a compound of interest depending on the cooking methods, the P-value of the two-tailed t-test was calculated. The ificance level was set to 0.

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Prior to cooking, qualitative screening was performed on all samples in order to access the sample compositions. All samples contained diacetylmorphine, MAM, paracetamol and caffeine. Morphine was detected in five out of the 30 samples.

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No psychoactive substances other than diacetylmorphine, MAM and morphine were detected i. Furthermore, none of the diacetylmorphine degradation products described by Cook and Brine were detected in the samples prior or after any type of cooking 5. The compounds of interest were quantified in the samples prior to cooking. Footnote 15 In particular, diacetylmorphine concentration range was from 3. Morphine was detected in all samples but most of them below the limit of quantification LOQ: 0.

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All are summarized in Table 2. Overall, the total opiates concentration diminished only 4. Changes for paracetamol and caffeine were higher than for the standard cooking method but remained well below changes observed for diacetylmorphine.

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All are summarized in Table 3. Twelve aliquots underwent the same cooking procedure under repeatability conditions. All are summarized in Table 4. However, it was not possible to identify the additional degradation products resulting from heroin heating. A possible toxic effect of the unknown compounds cannot be excluded. It is well established that the blood—brain barrier BBB plays a central role in pain management when using opiates but also in the intense euphoric effects experienced after heroin injection. The high potency of diacetylmorphine, i. Seleman and coworkers reported that MAM crosses the BBB not ificantly slower than diacetylmorphine and 35 times faster than morphine.


Footnote 20 Pharmacokinetic studies showed that MAM blood concentrations reached maximum levels after 2—4 min only and MAM concentrations may be up to 18 times higher than those of diacetylmorphine. As MAM is unstable and not readily available for use, the short heating of heroin powder in the formation of ificant amounts of MAM. When this preparation is diluted with saline solution and injected, MAM, not diacetylmorphine, is used and may be responsible for the perceived more intense effects of the heroin powder. However, heating the heroin powder without the addition of water in fast deacetylation of diacetylmorphine into MAM.

Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. Accessed 25 Sept Do they really inject heroin? A study on the possible changes in opioid content during heroin preparation for intravenous injection. Ponton R, Scott J. Injection preparation processes used by heroin and crack cocaine injectors.

Journal of Substance Use. Koenen I, Allar C. Besonderheiten bei Drogenkonsumenten: Begleitende Krankheitsbilder. Internal Collaborator Formation Abrigado.

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Aufkochen, aufziehen—und dann spritzen. Suchtmittel e. Berchner S. Kapitel 6: Ausgang Freiheit. Dybowski R, Gough TA. A study of transacetylation between 3,6-diacetylmorphine and morphine. Chromatogr Sci. Application Note Agilent Technologies, Inc. Dalsgaard PW. Statistical Bulletin — price, purity and potency.

Curr Neuropharmacol. Top drugs: clinical pharmacology and practical prescribing. ISBN 9,, Evidence from opiate binding studies that heroin acts through its metabolites. Life Sci.