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Although sexual dysfunction is common after prostate cancer, men's decisions to seek help for sexual concerns are not well understood. Describe predictors of actual prior help-seeking and intended future medical help-seeking for sexual dysfunction in prostate cancer survivors. A theory of planned behavior TPB perspective was used to examine actual prior and planned future behavior and contributing factors.


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Background: A large of Chinese suffer from common mental disorders e. It is unclear what barriers influence professional mental health help-seeking behavior within the Chinese population.

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Young people frequently make use of the internet as part of their day-to-day activities, and this has extended to their help-seeking behavior.

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Offline help-seeking is known to be impeded by a of barriers including stigma and a preference for self-reliance. Online help-seeking may offer an additional domain where young people can seek help for mental health difficulties without being encumbered by these same barriers.

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It also examined the theoretical perspectives that have been applied to understand online help-seeking. The search was conducted in August The narrative synthesis approach to reviews was used to analyze the existing evidence to answer the review questions. Overall, 28 studies were included. The most common method of data collection was through the use of surveys.

Study quality was moderate to strong. Text-based query via an internet search engine was the most commonly identified help-seeking approach. Social media, government or charity websites, live chat, instant messaging, and online communities were also used. Key benefits included anonymity and privacy, immediacy, ease of access, inclusivity, the ability to connect with others and share experiences, and a greater sense of control over the help-seeking journey.

Online help-seeking has the potential to meet the needs of those with a preference for self-reliance or act as a gateway to further help-seeking. Barriers to help-seeking included a lack of mental health literacy, concerns about privacy and confidentiality, and uncertainty about the trustworthiness of online resources.

Until now, there has been limited development and use of theoretical models to guide research on online help-seeking.

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Approaches to improving help-seeking by young people should consider the role of the internet and online resources as an adjunct to offline help-seeking. This review identifies opportunities and challenges in this space. It highlights the limited use of theoretical frameworks to help conceptualize online help-seeking. Self-determination theory and the help-seeking model provide promising starting points for the development of online help-seeking theories.

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This review discusses the use of these theories to conceptualize online help-seeking and identify key motivations and tensions that may arise when young people seek help online. Yet, most young people are reluctant to seek help from formal mental health services [ 3 - 5 ]. The help-seeking process is difficult; it is complicated by personal and contextual factors, such as access, stigma, and mental health literacy [ 367 ].

It then becomes critically important to find alternative methods in which to target and assist young people who are not receiving help. That external assistance can be from a wide array of sources. Rickwood et al [ 3 ] propose a conceptual model specifically taking into the needs of young people Figure 1. They describe help-seeking as a process that involves the following: 1 becoming aware of symptoms and making the appraisal that assistance might be required; 2 expressing the symptoms that they are experiencing and that they are in need of help or support; 3 the person should then be aware of sources of help that are available and accessible to them; and 4 the final step that depends on the willingness of the help-seeker to disclose their difficulties to the selected, available source [ 3 ].

Two main types of help-seeking sources have been identified: formal and informal. Formal help-seeking can be understood as seeking assistance from any professional who has a recognized and legitimate role in providing support. Informal help-seeking is understood as pursuing assistance from informal social supports with whom the individual may or may not share a personal relationship [ 3 ]. Research shows that most young people have a preference for self-reliance when experiencing personal and emotional concerns and are more likely to make use of informal help sources than formal help sources, when and if they do reach out [ 3 ].

Most recently, computer-mediated technologies have begun to influence the help-seeking process.

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The internet offers another pathway to access care and help when young people are experiencing mental health concerns. Young people use the internet as their main source of information for all of their daily needs; accordingly, this logically extends to accessing information regarding their physical and mental health [ 9 - 11 ].

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Various formal online services are readily available, as are informal resources such as discussion boards and social media [ 12 ]. Information gained from these sources could facilitate the help-seeking process to the next stage and could influence the way in which individuals form their help-seeking attitudes. The internet also offers unique benefits in the form of anonymity, access, and user control that can sometimes interfere with the offline help-seeking process [ 13 ].

The availability of high-quality mental health information and online resources could have a ificant impact on the health outcomes of a young person [ 14 ]. Although the potential benefits of online mental health resources have been acknowledged, there are also some concerns. For example, there is a worry that online help-seeking may delay access to formal help sources [ 10 ]. It is important to understand how these online resources, both formal and informal, are viewed by young people.

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Systematic reviews have been conducted in this area with a focus on how young people search for health-related information on the internet [ 15 ] and the effectiveness of online mental health services to improve help-seeking [ 14 ]; however, this review sought to understand the process and experiences of young people with regard to their online help-seeking experiences. The objectives of this narrative review [ 16 ] were to conduct a systematic analysis of the research on this topic and use the research to identify future opportunities for research and de that can improve the online help-seeking experiences of young people.

The specific aims of this systematic review were as follows:.

Barriers to professional mental health help-seeking among chinese adults: a systematic review

To examine the strategies employed by young people to search for help online for mental health difficulties. On the basis of the aims of the study, inclusion and exclusion criteria were established to guide the subsequent search process. In addition, the reference lists of all the included studies were scanned for relevant papers.

The search terms aimed to represent the primary concepts of online help-seekingmental healthand young people. Keywords were generated for each of these concepts by examining the terminology used in review papers in the help-seeking literature, and the authors sought the guidance of a trained librarian in the formation of the search string.

Dimensionality and reliability of the intentions to seeking counseling inventory with international students

The search strings are included in Multimedia Appendix 1. In keeping with the emerging youth mental health paradigm as described in the International Declaration on Youth Mental Health [ 17 ], the studies were restricted to young people aged 25 years and younger. Only English-language studies were included. All studies identified in the database search were exported to a reference managing software EndNote X8 for Mac, Clarivate Analyticsand duplicate records were deleted. The initial search identified published English-language abstracts Figure 2.

After removing the duplicates, papers remained.

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These papers were then reviewed by title and abstract to determine whether they met the inclusion criteria, resulting in 93 potentially relevant studies. At this stage, the full texts of these studies were obtained to confirm whether the inclusion and exclusion criteria listed below were met, resulting in 65 studies being excluded.

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The remaining 28 studies were included. A few discrepancies were noted, and those were resolved by discussion and subsequent double checking to ensure consistency. Each paper was read by CP and relevant details were extracted into a Microsoft Excel spreheet.

There were a of different protocol details that were examined and recorded for each paper. The coding scheme was used to help identify the components relevant to the study de and to address the research questions. Quality assessment of included studies was conducted using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program CASP checklists [ 18 ] as there are quantitative and qualitative versions available to allow appraisal across different study des.

The CASP checklists enable the assessment of trustworthiness, relevance, and of published papers and are divided into 3 sections to assess internal validity,and relevance to practice. Quality criteria for surveys included sections on research question and de, sampling framework and participant understanding, instrument metrics, response rate, coding and analysis, and result presentation [ 19 - 21 ].

Systematic review article

Each study received an overall rating of either strongmoderateor weakbased on the of questions scored as yes. Studies had to be scored as yes on majority of the questions to be rated strong overall see Multimedia Appendix 2 tables for details, as criteria differed by study de.

Following the quality assessment stage, the inclusion of studies and extraction of key findings were finalized. Extracted data were entered into a table of study characteristics, including the quality assessment ratings for each study. The decision was made to use narrative synthesis as it provides a broad overview of relevant information through a textual approach and is appropriate when it is expected that the studies will be heterogenous.

Young people’s online help-seeking and mental health difficulties: systematic narrative review

Owing to the nature of the review questions, it was expected that the studies included would investigate help-seeking differently, make use of different research questions, and use different criteria to investigate help-seeking behaviors; thus, it would not be appropriate to make use of statistical synthesis techniques. The Guidance on the Conduct of Narrative Synthesis in Systematic Reviews [ 16 ] informed the data synthesis process to ensure that and analysis were reported accurately.

All the data extracted from the papers are presented narratively in text and summary tables. The inclusion and exclusion criteria are shown in Textbox 1. Participants who present with psychological distress, self-selected general population samples, and those who have received a diagnosis from a health care practitioner. Studies deed to investigate and document the online help-seeking intentions and behaviors of young people. Studies that included an intervention or interventions that were deed to improve help-seeking attitudes or increase help-seeking intentions or help-seeking behaviors of young people.

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Unrelated technology, for example, computer games and their impact on mental health and social media and forums that are not specifically focused on mental health-related topics. Studies focused on online treatment methodologies and interventions, for example, computerized cognitive behavioral therapy or online counselling. The studies were published between and The research methodologies of the studies were varied. Only 4 of the 28 included studies mentioned which help-seeking model they employed to inform their study de [ 6122223 ].

Survey research was the most widely employed research de; overall 11 studies [ 24 - 33 ] made use of an online survey and 4 studies [ 34 - 37 ] administered the survey in person to collect data from participants. Survey questions included standardized measures such as the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire and mental well-being scales such as the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, but questions regarding technology and internet use varied and no standardized scales seemed to be available. Areas explored in these sections of the surveys included the internet and social media use, use of online mental health resources, perceived usefulness of these resources, and preference regarding these resources.

Other study des included 1 randomized controlled trial [ 38 ], 1 feasibility study [ 39 ], 2 comparative studies [ 4041 ], and 4 qualitative studies [ 942 - 44 ]. These studies aimed to assess the intention to seek help from different help sources, help-seeking behaviors from different help sources, level of psychological distress, and preferred modes of delivery of online mental health services. The of participants in each study ranged from 23 to